E-ISSN 1658-8223 | ISSN 1658-645X
 

Original Article 


Clinical manifestations and general characteristics of pediatric patients with COVID-19: A single-center study in the Makkah region, Saudi Arabia

Sattam Almutairi, Sumaiah Alfhmi, Amwaj Alotaibi, Farah Alsaadi, Manahel Alotaibi, Wahj Almofriji, Moawad Alotaibi, Sara F bagdood, Bayan T. Rayes, Raid Alzahrani, Fatmah Zamil, Hayat Aljutaili, Nouf Alotaibi.

Abstract
Background and Aims:
The clinical presentations of pediatric patients infected with COVID-19 vary from mild to acute. The most commonly reported signs and symptoms are fever, cough, headache, myalgia, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. While pediatric hospitalizations are lower than those for adult patients, there is still inadequate data related to the general features of pediatric patients with COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia. This study aimed to identify clinical presentations, laboratory abnormalities, duration of hospitalizations, need for intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, and incidence of death and possible risk factors of mortality in pediatric patients.
Methods:
A retrospective study was conducted at the Maternity and Children’s Hospital in Makkah, Saudi Arabia, from March 2020 to December 2021. Pediatric patients under 18 years of age who had positive Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) test results for COVID-19 were included. Clinical presentations, laboratory results, medications, and any radiological abnormalities were extracted from electronic medical records and a chart review.
Results:
A total of 95 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 were included in the study. Of the patients, 50 (52.6%) were male, 64 (67.4%) were Saudi, and 31 (32.6%) were non-Saudi. The patients’ mean (SD) age was 3.71 (3.69) years. Their mean temperature rose to 38.34°C (0.8OC)֯, and the mean duration of their fever was 2.97 (2.8) days. The most commonly observed manifestations were diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Of the patients, 24.2% needed ICU admission, 12.6% required mechanical ventilation, 9.5% were given vasoactive agents, 2.1% required dialysis for acute kidney injury (AKI), and 5.3% passed away. The incidence of death was significant in non-Saudi patients (P = .038).
Conclusions:
COVID-19 equally affected males and females. Most of the pediatric patients who died had co-morbidities. Fever, diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain were the most prevalent symptoms.

Key words: COVID-19, Pediatrics, Clinical, Death


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Almutairi S, Alfhmi S, Alotaibi A, Alsaadi F, Alotaibi M, Almofriji W, Alotaibi M, bagdood SF, Rayes BT, Alzahrani R, Zamil F, Aljutaili H, Alotaibi N. Clinical manifestations and general characteristics of pediatric patients with COVID-19: A single-center study in the Makkah region, Saudi Arabia. Majmaah J Heal Sci. 2023; 11(2): 118-128. doi:10.5455/mjhs.2023.02.011


Web Style

Almutairi S, Alfhmi S, Alotaibi A, Alsaadi F, Alotaibi M, Almofriji W, Alotaibi M, bagdood SF, Rayes BT, Alzahrani R, Zamil F, Aljutaili H, Alotaibi N. Clinical manifestations and general characteristics of pediatric patients with COVID-19: A single-center study in the Makkah region, Saudi Arabia. https://www.mjhs-mu.org/?mno=132068 [Access: May 30, 2023]. doi:10.5455/mjhs.2023.02.011


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Almutairi S, Alfhmi S, Alotaibi A, Alsaadi F, Alotaibi M, Almofriji W, Alotaibi M, bagdood SF, Rayes BT, Alzahrani R, Zamil F, Aljutaili H, Alotaibi N. Clinical manifestations and general characteristics of pediatric patients with COVID-19: A single-center study in the Makkah region, Saudi Arabia. Majmaah J Heal Sci. 2023; 11(2): 118-128. doi:10.5455/mjhs.2023.02.011



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Almutairi S, Alfhmi S, Alotaibi A, Alsaadi F, Alotaibi M, Almofriji W, Alotaibi M, bagdood SF, Rayes BT, Alzahrani R, Zamil F, Aljutaili H, Alotaibi N. Clinical manifestations and general characteristics of pediatric patients with COVID-19: A single-center study in the Makkah region, Saudi Arabia. Majmaah J Heal Sci. (2023), [cited May 30, 2023]; 11(2): 118-128. doi:10.5455/mjhs.2023.02.011



Harvard Style

Almutairi, S., Alfhmi, . S., Alotaibi, . A., Alsaadi, . F., Alotaibi, . M., Almofriji, . W., Alotaibi, . M., bagdood, . S. F., Rayes, . B. T., Alzahrani, . R., Zamil, . F., Aljutaili, . H. & Alotaibi, . N. (2023) Clinical manifestations and general characteristics of pediatric patients with COVID-19: A single-center study in the Makkah region, Saudi Arabia. Majmaah J Heal Sci, 11 (2), 118-128. doi:10.5455/mjhs.2023.02.011



Turabian Style

Almutairi, Sattam, Sumaiah Alfhmi, Amwaj Alotaibi, Farah Alsaadi, Manahel Alotaibi, Wahj Almofriji, Moawad Alotaibi, Sara F bagdood, Bayan T. Rayes, Raid Alzahrani, Fatmah Zamil, Hayat Aljutaili, and Nouf Alotaibi. 2023. Clinical manifestations and general characteristics of pediatric patients with COVID-19: A single-center study in the Makkah region, Saudi Arabia. Majmaah Journal of Health Sciences, 11 (2), 118-128. doi:10.5455/mjhs.2023.02.011



Chicago Style

Almutairi, Sattam, Sumaiah Alfhmi, Amwaj Alotaibi, Farah Alsaadi, Manahel Alotaibi, Wahj Almofriji, Moawad Alotaibi, Sara F bagdood, Bayan T. Rayes, Raid Alzahrani, Fatmah Zamil, Hayat Aljutaili, and Nouf Alotaibi. "Clinical manifestations and general characteristics of pediatric patients with COVID-19: A single-center study in the Makkah region, Saudi Arabia." Majmaah Journal of Health Sciences 11 (2023), 118-128. doi:10.5455/mjhs.2023.02.011



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Almutairi, Sattam, Sumaiah Alfhmi, Amwaj Alotaibi, Farah Alsaadi, Manahel Alotaibi, Wahj Almofriji, Moawad Alotaibi, Sara F bagdood, Bayan T. Rayes, Raid Alzahrani, Fatmah Zamil, Hayat Aljutaili, and Nouf Alotaibi. "Clinical manifestations and general characteristics of pediatric patients with COVID-19: A single-center study in the Makkah region, Saudi Arabia." Majmaah Journal of Health Sciences 11.2 (2023), 118-128. Print. doi:10.5455/mjhs.2023.02.011



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Almutairi, S., Alfhmi, . S., Alotaibi, . A., Alsaadi, . F., Alotaibi, . M., Almofriji, . W., Alotaibi, . M., bagdood, . S. F., Rayes, . B. T., Alzahrani, . R., Zamil, . F., Aljutaili, . H. & Alotaibi, . N. (2023) Clinical manifestations and general characteristics of pediatric patients with COVID-19: A single-center study in the Makkah region, Saudi Arabia. Majmaah Journal of Health Sciences, 11 (2), 118-128. doi:10.5455/mjhs.2023.02.011





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