E-ISSN 1658-8223 | ISSN 1658-645X
 

Review Article 


Risk Factors, Pathophysiology, and Management of ICU Delirium: A Literature Review

Majed Alamri.

Abstract
Background: Delirium is an acute change in mental status with an unpredictable course of diminished attention and incoherent thinking, which is common among ICU patients. Various evidence implies a correlation between delirium and many fatal outcomes in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, such as higher 6-month mortality rate, longer hospital stays, longer post-ICU hospital stays, a higher occurrence of cognitive impairment, and long-term cognitive impairment after a critical illness.

Aim: To identify the risk factors, pathophysiology, and management of ICU delirium among critically ill patients.

Method: Using literature review, this study thoroughly examined the results of studies from different journals investigating ICU delirium

Findings: The identified risk factors were age, cigarette smoking, alcohol abuse, eroids, sedatives, total number of medications, sodium level, hypoalbuminemia, hypertension, sepsis, chronic renal failure, trauma, immobility, and pain. Moreover, underlying mechanisms in the development of ICU delirium were cholinergic deficiency, neuropathologic lesion, direct brain insults, aberrant stress response and inflammatory process, and alteration of plasma melatonin. Numerous effective non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic treatments are available to manage delirium.

Conclusion: Delirium is a form of acute brain dysfunction that is not well-recognized in ICU. The identification of the risk factors and the possible underlying mechanisms for the development of delirium continues to be the first step in its management; then, the next step is often pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatments. The choice of these treatments should be understood as part of a greater multicomponent approach in the management of critically ill patients.

Key words: ICU delirium, Risk factors, Pathophysiology, Pharmacologic treatments, Non-pharmacologic treatments


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Majed Alamri. Risk Factors, Pathophysiology, and Management of ICU Delirium: A Literature Review. Majmaah J Heal Sci. 2017; 5(1): 66-86. doi:10.5455/mjhs.2017.01.008


Web Style

Majed Alamri. Risk Factors, Pathophysiology, and Management of ICU Delirium: A Literature Review. https://www.mjhs-mu.org/?mno=294028 [Access: February 02, 2023]. doi:10.5455/mjhs.2017.01.008


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Majed Alamri. Risk Factors, Pathophysiology, and Management of ICU Delirium: A Literature Review. Majmaah J Heal Sci. 2017; 5(1): 66-86. doi:10.5455/mjhs.2017.01.008



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Majed Alamri. Risk Factors, Pathophysiology, and Management of ICU Delirium: A Literature Review. Majmaah J Heal Sci. (2017), [cited February 02, 2023]; 5(1): 66-86. doi:10.5455/mjhs.2017.01.008



Harvard Style

Majed Alamri (2017) Risk Factors, Pathophysiology, and Management of ICU Delirium: A Literature Review. Majmaah J Heal Sci, 5 (1), 66-86. doi:10.5455/mjhs.2017.01.008



Turabian Style

Majed Alamri. 2017. Risk Factors, Pathophysiology, and Management of ICU Delirium: A Literature Review. Majmaah Journal of Health Sciences, 5 (1), 66-86. doi:10.5455/mjhs.2017.01.008



Chicago Style

Majed Alamri. "Risk Factors, Pathophysiology, and Management of ICU Delirium: A Literature Review." Majmaah Journal of Health Sciences 5 (2017), 66-86. doi:10.5455/mjhs.2017.01.008



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Majed Alamri. "Risk Factors, Pathophysiology, and Management of ICU Delirium: A Literature Review." Majmaah Journal of Health Sciences 5.1 (2017), 66-86. Print. doi:10.5455/mjhs.2017.01.008



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Majed Alamri (2017) Risk Factors, Pathophysiology, and Management of ICU Delirium: A Literature Review. Majmaah Journal of Health Sciences, 5 (1), 66-86. doi:10.5455/mjhs.2017.01.008





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