E-ISSN 1658-8223 | ISSN 1658-645X
 

Original Article 


Main Referral Sources Based on Hospice Organizational Structure Variances in the United States

George Audi, Nazik M.A. Zakari, Dayana Martinez, Hanadi Hamadi.

Abstract
Background and Aim: Referral contracts are an avenue for understanding the organizational structure of different hospice organizations. The aim of the study is to determine whether an organization’s type and ownership impact patient referral patterns.

Methods: A cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted among a nationally weighted representative sample of 620 hospice agencies in the United States. The survey responses were collected using a stratified, multi-stage probability design.

Results: The data supported that hospice referral sources are impacted by organizational variations in ownership status. The data showed that 101(23.5%) of for-profit hospitals reported a hospital as their main referral source. Approximately 167(68.5%) of respondents reported hospitals which were the main referral sources, were part of a chain. For-profit hospice agencies were 7.82 times and 4.21 times more likely to have nursing homes and physicians’ offices as the main patient referral source. Not-for-profit hospices were 42% (adjusted odds ratio = 0.58; 95% confidence interval = 0.36–0.9) less likely to have administrators with a master’s administrator than those with a bachelor’s degree. Not-for-profit hospices were 4.42 times and 1.72 more likely to be part of a change and have no formal contracts with outside sources.

Conclusions: Hospice care is a comprehensive interdisciplinary approach to end-of-life care for patients. The referral sources are impacted based on their ownership status- es. Proper knowledge of hospice and hospice services delivery is essential to provide effective referrals. The data presents that internal and external factors play critical roles in the overall referral sources of hospice organizations.

Key words: Hospice care, referral sources, organization ownership, affiliation status


 
ARTICLE TOOLS
Abstract
PDF Fulltext
How to cite this articleHow to cite this article
Citation Tools
Related Records
 Articles by George Audi
Articles by Nazik M.A. Zakari
Articles by Dayana Martinez
Articles by Hanadi Hamadi
on Google
on Google Scholar


How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Audi G, Zakari NM, Martinez D, Hamadi H. Main Referral Sources Based on Hospice Organizational Structure Variances in the United States. Majmaah J Heal Sci. 2021; 9(1): 39-52. doi:10.5455/mjhs.2021.01.006


Web Style

Audi G, Zakari NM, Martinez D, Hamadi H. Main Referral Sources Based on Hospice Organizational Structure Variances in the United States. http://www.mjhs-mu.org/?mno=104521 [Access: January 02, 2021]. doi:10.5455/mjhs.2021.01.006


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Audi G, Zakari NM, Martinez D, Hamadi H. Main Referral Sources Based on Hospice Organizational Structure Variances in the United States. Majmaah J Heal Sci. 2021; 9(1): 39-52. doi:10.5455/mjhs.2021.01.006



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Audi G, Zakari NM, Martinez D, Hamadi H. Main Referral Sources Based on Hospice Organizational Structure Variances in the United States. Majmaah J Heal Sci. (2021), [cited January 02, 2021]; 9(1): 39-52. doi:10.5455/mjhs.2021.01.006



Harvard Style

Audi, G., Zakari, . N. M., Martinez, . D. & Hamadi, . H. (2021) Main Referral Sources Based on Hospice Organizational Structure Variances in the United States. Majmaah J Heal Sci, 9 (1), 39-52. doi:10.5455/mjhs.2021.01.006



Turabian Style

Audi, George, Nazik M.A. Zakari, Dayana Martinez, and Hanadi Hamadi. 2021. Main Referral Sources Based on Hospice Organizational Structure Variances in the United States. Majmaah Journal of Health Sciences, 9 (1), 39-52. doi:10.5455/mjhs.2021.01.006



Chicago Style

Audi, George, Nazik M.A. Zakari, Dayana Martinez, and Hanadi Hamadi. "Main Referral Sources Based on Hospice Organizational Structure Variances in the United States." Majmaah Journal of Health Sciences 9 (2021), 39-52. doi:10.5455/mjhs.2021.01.006



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Audi, George, Nazik M.A. Zakari, Dayana Martinez, and Hanadi Hamadi. "Main Referral Sources Based on Hospice Organizational Structure Variances in the United States." Majmaah Journal of Health Sciences 9.1 (2021), 39-52. Print. doi:10.5455/mjhs.2021.01.006



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Audi, G., Zakari, . N. M., Martinez, . D. & Hamadi, . H. (2021) Main Referral Sources Based on Hospice Organizational Structure Variances in the United States. Majmaah Journal of Health Sciences, 9 (1), 39-52. doi:10.5455/mjhs.2021.01.006





Most Viewed Articles
  • Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hypercholesterolemia in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia
    Khalid El Tohami Medani, Mohammed Abdullah Al Mansour, Elsadig Yousif Mohamed, Fahad Alfhaid, Talal Shakhs Alghamdi, Waqas Sami, Sawsan Mustafa Abdalla, Mansour Khater Al Zahrani
    Majmaah J Heal Sci. 2018; 6(1): 34-41
    » Abstract » doi: 10.5455/mjhs.2018.01.006

  • Physical Therapy Intervention in Post Stroke Shoulder Subluxation: A Narrative Review
    Mazen Alqahtani
    Majmaah J Heal Sci. 2018; 6(1): 48-60
    » Abstract » doi: 10.5455/mjhs.2018.01.008

  • Gentamicin induced neurodegenerative changes in auditory cortex of adult Albino rats
    Rehan M Asad, Moattar R Rizvi, Sami Waqas, Kamran Afzal
    Majmaah J Heal Sci. 2013; 1(1): 11-17
    » Abstract » doi: 10.12816/0004766

  • Prevalence of Hypertriglyceridemia in Patients Attending Primary Health Care Centers in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia
    Fahad Alfhaid
    Majmaah J Heal Sci. 2018; 6(1): 10-16
    » Abstract » doi: 10.5455/mjhs.2018.01.003

  • Parental Knowledge, Attitude and Practice on Antibiotic use for Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Children
    Khaled Al-Dossari
    Majmaah J Heal Sci. 2013; 1(1): 33-45
    » Abstract » doi: 10.12816/0004769

  • Most Downloaded
  • The “Epidemiological Transmission” and “Double-Burden of Disease”: A Focus on Africa
    Asim Abdelmoneim Hussein
    Majmaah J Heal Sci. 2014; 2(2): 3-11
    » Abstract

  • Relativity of Platelet Count with Automated Cell Counter & Manual Haemocytometer using Peripheral Blood Smear
    Purnendu Sinha, Moattar Raza Rizvi, Ranjay Kumar Choudhary
    Majmaah J Heal Sci. 2014; 2(1): 41-46
    » Abstract » doi: 10.12816/0004783

  • Physical Therapy Intervention in Post Stroke Shoulder Subluxation: A Narrative Review
    Mazen Alqahtani
    Majmaah J Heal Sci. 2018; 6(1): 48-60
    » Abstract » doi: 10.5455/mjhs.2018.01.008

  • How Many Subjects Should be Studied: Sample Size Determination through Hypothesis Testing and Confidence Interval
    Waqas Sami, Mohammed O. Al-Rukban, Mohammed Almansour, Tayyaba Waqas, Kamran Afzal, Rehan Asad
    Majmaah J Heal Sci. 2013; 1(2): 43-48
    » Abstract

  • An Assessment of Nutrition Education in Primary Schools and its Effect on Students Dietary Behaviors and Body Mass Index in Saudi Arabia
    Ali S. R. Alsubaie
    Majmaah J Heal Sci. 2017; 5(2): 45-56
    » Abstract » doi: 10.5455/mjhs.2017.02.006

  • Most Cited Articles
  • Physical Therapy Management for Child with Generalized Joint Hypermobility
    Mohamed Sherif Sirajudeen
    Majmaah J Heal Sci. 2020; 8(1): 113-119
    » Abstract » doi: 10.5455/mjhs.2020.01.011
    Cited : 2 times [Click to see citing articles]