E-ISSN 1658-8223 | ISSN 1658-645X
 

Original Article 


Prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of depressive symptoms among male expatriate workers in Saudi Arabia

Hyacinth O. Ukuhor.

Abstract
Background and Aim: Expatriate workers are frequently marginalized and vulnerable but we know little about their mental health. Depressive disorders have been shown to have significant effects on workforce productivity and the economic development of a country. Thus, this research aims at determining the prevalence and sociodemographic factors associated with depressive symptoms in expatriate workers in Saudi Arabia.

Methods: A cross-sectional interview survey of 4575 male expatriate workers from 270 randomly selected businesses/companies was conducted. The predictor variables are sociodemographic and workplace characteristics. Trained interviewers employed the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) instrument to determine the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV) for depressive symptoms (outcome variable). The relationship between sociodemographic, workplace correlates and depressives symptoms was investigated using multivariate regression analysis.

Results: The depressive symptoms prevalence was 19.7%. Risk factors for depressive symptoms include ethnicity (Filipinos (adjusted odds ratio – AOR=1.510 (1.054-2.162) and Yemenis (AOR=2.010 (1.455- 2.776((, older age ≥50 years )AOR = 2.648 )1.861-3.768((, diploma or university qualifications) AOR = 2.144 (1.602-2.870)), income >6000SAR (AOR = 2.024 (1.318-3.107)), poor physical health (AOR =1.709 (1.137-2.569)) and emotional health (AOR = 9.130 (5.664-14.716)).

Conclusions: The prevalence of depressive symptoms is high among expatriates. The findings provide new understanding of the impact of the identified sociodemographic correlates on the occurrence of high levels of depressive symptoms such as ethnic differences are associated with greater depressive symptoms risk. These results suggest there may be a benefit in screening for depressive disorders, provision of ethnically bespoke, and adapted clinical interventions and workplace prevention programs to ensure equal quality care.

Key words: Depressive symptoms, Expatriate workers, Workplace, Sociodemographic, Prevalence


 
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Pubmed Style

Hyacinth O. Ukuhor. Prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of depressive symptoms among male expatriate workers in Saudi Arabia. Majmaah J Heal Sci. 2020; 8(3): 61-77. doi:10.5455/mjhs.2020.03.008


Web Style

Hyacinth O. Ukuhor. Prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of depressive symptoms among male expatriate workers in Saudi Arabia. http://www.mjhs-mu.org/?mno=81650 [Access: September 06, 2020]. doi:10.5455/mjhs.2020.03.008


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Hyacinth O. Ukuhor. Prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of depressive symptoms among male expatriate workers in Saudi Arabia. Majmaah J Heal Sci. 2020; 8(3): 61-77. doi:10.5455/mjhs.2020.03.008



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Hyacinth O. Ukuhor. Prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of depressive symptoms among male expatriate workers in Saudi Arabia. Majmaah J Heal Sci. (2020), [cited September 06, 2020]; 8(3): 61-77. doi:10.5455/mjhs.2020.03.008



Harvard Style

Hyacinth O. Ukuhor (2020) Prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of depressive symptoms among male expatriate workers in Saudi Arabia. Majmaah J Heal Sci, 8 (3), 61-77. doi:10.5455/mjhs.2020.03.008



Turabian Style

Hyacinth O. Ukuhor. 2020. Prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of depressive symptoms among male expatriate workers in Saudi Arabia. Majmaah Journal of Health Sciences, 8 (3), 61-77. doi:10.5455/mjhs.2020.03.008



Chicago Style

Hyacinth O. Ukuhor. "Prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of depressive symptoms among male expatriate workers in Saudi Arabia." Majmaah Journal of Health Sciences 8 (2020), 61-77. doi:10.5455/mjhs.2020.03.008



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Hyacinth O. Ukuhor. "Prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of depressive symptoms among male expatriate workers in Saudi Arabia." Majmaah Journal of Health Sciences 8.3 (2020), 61-77. Print. doi:10.5455/mjhs.2020.03.008



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Hyacinth O. Ukuhor (2020) Prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of depressive symptoms among male expatriate workers in Saudi Arabia. Majmaah Journal of Health Sciences, 8 (3), 61-77. doi:10.5455/mjhs.2020.03.008





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